The biosphere covers the lower part of the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and the top horizons of a lithosphere. Waste products of living beings belong to very mobile substances which move in space far beyond dwelling of organisms. Therefore it is natural that distribution of live organisms is more limited in space, than all biosphere in general.
Speaking about a civilization as about set of achievements of human reason, they meant recognition of natural human rights, respect of its rights and freedoms, understanding by the Supreme power of social responsibility, opening of science and philosophy.
Feature of our time is intensive and global impact of the person on environment that is followed by intensive and global negative consequences. Contradictions between the person and the nature are capable to become aggravated, in addition, because there is no limit to growth of material needs of the person while ability of environment to satisfy them — is limited.
The culture is set of all those spiritual achievements of mankind which, even having arisen as individual and subjective and historically concrete, with a current of history received the status public and objective and as if over the temporary spiritual phenomena, forming general cultural tradition continuous and not subject to the certain individual.
First of all, means of production and objects of the labor belong to material culture. Material culture — an indicator of level of practical mastering the person the nature. The science and extent of introduction of its achievements in production and life, education level, a condition of education, medical care, art, ethical standards of behavior of members of society, a level of development of requirements and interests of people belong to spiritual culture. The spiritual culture is deposited in a "real" form. All this lives and cooperates with modern generation and is culture only in the relation with live reason.
On process of a civilization before mankind repeatedly there were complex problems, at times and planetary character. But nevertheless it was the far background, some kind of "the incubatory period" of modern global problems. Fully these problems were shown already in the second half and, in particular, in the last quarter of the XX century, that is at a turn of two centuries and, even, the millennia. They were brought to life by the whole complex of the reasons which are distinctly shown during this period.
Educators the first introduced into wide scientific circulation and concept of a civilization. In their opinion, the civilization represented, on the one hand, the certain stage in development of human society following wildness and barbarity with another — all set of achievements of human reason and their embodiments in public life of various people.
The history testifies, as during former eras contradictions between the person and the nature became aggravated and it led to ecological crises. But it were local and regional crises. Ancient hunters could, having exterminated animals to pass to other place; ancient farmers and cattle-farmers could if the soil was exhausted or forages became less, to develop the new lands.
In avoidance of these consequences, V. I. Vernadsky offers idea about a role of reasonable human activity in the nature. Now when developing the theory of interaction of society and the nature it is impossible to manage without fruitful predictive idea of Vernadsky about formation of a noosphere as process of conscious humanistic transformation by the person of conditions of the natural natural environment. In the conditions of an aggravation of global problems of the present, and especially, an ecological situation, many researchers — representatives natural and the humanities — for judgment of these difficult processes address to Vernadsky's heritage, trying to find at the founder of the materialistic concept of a noosphere answers to problems about a place of the person in the nature and the biosphere, about the future of the biosphere and interaction of society and the nature about destinies of a world civilization and mankind in general.